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What is Pedophilia?
This article discusses the definition, causes and treatments of pedophilia.
What is Pedophilia? Pedophilia can be defined as a psychiatric disorder whereby one has a desire to engage in sexual activity with prepubertal children. The most desirable age range of the child is thirteen and younger and includes both male and female youth. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV), a person diagnosed with pedophilia must be at least sixteen years of age and no less than five years older than the victim. Furthermore, the urges or fantasies must persist for at least six months. There is no set age at which the sexual attraction to children begins. A majority of pedophiles have reported that their deviant attractions started at about the time they entered puberty, but pedophilia can develop when the individual is much older. In cases where the pedophile is an adolescent, various factors which include the maturity of the offender are taken into consideration.
First described by German psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebbing in 1886, the term pedophilia is derived from the Greek pais(child) and philia(love or friendship). Krafft-Ebbing was the first to establish a distinction between this psychiatric disorder and sexual abuse. Even so, the average person still makes the mistake of believing that the two terms are synonymous. It is important to note that not every adult who sexually abuses children is a pedophile and not all pedophiles act on their urges or fantasies. Those who choose to act on their sexual desires may engage in a variety of activities with their victims including undressing or looking at the naked child (voyeurism), exposing themselves to the child (exhibitionism), masturbating in front of the child, oral sex and vaginal or anal penetration. Although children and weaker and therefore easier to manipulate, the true goal of the pedophile is not one of domination. In fact, as stated by sociologist David Finkelhor of the University of New Hampshire, their objective is to create a legitimate relationship with the child. Because of the security the offender may feel when he is with his victim, he may begin to exhibit childish behavior.
Because of the primary characteristics of recurrent sexual urges and fantasies that deviate from the traditionally accepted ideas of sexual relationships, pedophilia is considered to be a paraphilia. As defined in the Merck Manual of Medical Information (1997), these abnormal attractions may take a variety of forms including fetishism, transvestism, voyeurism, and exhibitionism. Although some diversity in an adult relationship is acceptable when it is between two consenting individuals, it is when the deviant behavior is taken to the extreme that it becomes a paraphilia. When the deviations reach this point, the partner of the person with the paraphilia may begin to feel like an unnecessary part of the sexual relationship.
While this disorder primarily affects men, women are not immune to it. Pedophilia among women is believed to be rare but the number of pedophilic women is thought to be underreported . This can be explained by the fact that women traditionally take on the role of caregiver when it comes to children. Bathing and dressing the child are just two tasks that are usually performed by women. This gives them ample opportunity to engage in pedophilic behaviors without raising suspicion.
The myth of the perverted man in a long coat lurking around school yards or daycares is no longer altogether true. In fact, pedophiles come from all walks of life and may be the very people whom one would least suspect. Doctors, lawyers, teachers, principals, coaches, and even congressmen have been found to be afflicted with this disorder. The method by which they find and come into contact with their victims is limitless. There are, however, at least three methods of finding victims that are common among pedophiles. One of these methods is stalking. The stalkers hang around parks, malls, and other places that youth are known to frequent in hopes of gaining physical access to a victim. Another method is cruising which, although it may sound the same as stalking, is quite different. Cruisers use the internet to talk to or view pictures of children without gaining physical access to them. They frequent chat rooms and talk to unsuspecting children as a means of building a relationship with them. These deviant adults offer their email addresses and phone numbers to the children they communicate with as a means of gaining the child's trust . This may eventually lead to a face to face meeting. Yet another way that pedophiles fulfill their sexual desires and fantasies is by networking with other pedophiles. The "pedophile rings" allows members to exchange pictures and discuss their fantasies with each other. Each year, numerous children become victims of pedophile rings.
Such was the case of twelve year old Johnny Gosch of Des Moines, Iowa who was kidnapped in 1982 while delivering newspapers. Since then, his mother Noreen Gosch has created the Johnny Gosch Foundation in hopes of raising public awareness about pedophilia. Hers is the heartbreaking story of a mother's worst nightmare and a never ending search for a child who was so brutally taken from her. Through her website, Noreen Gosch reached out to the public and asked that anyone who may know what has become of her son, whom she believes is still alive and living under a new name, contact her and let her know where he is.
Although the exact cause of this disorder remains an enigma among the medical community, there are several theories that have been developed that may lead researchers closer to finding a cause and therefore a cure. These theories describe the cause of pedophilia as anything from learned behavior to neurological abnormalities. The learned behavior theory holds that pedophiles were the victims of child molestation or parental neglect as children and therefore became sexually aggressive adults. This is, however, a topic of debate among members of the medical community. Other factors that may contribute to pedophilia are biological ones. Among these are brain traumas during early childhood. Research has also indicated that genetics may also play a part in pedophilia since it has been found that it can run in families.
There is currently no cure for pedophilia, but a variety of treatments are being used to help pedophiles control their predatory behavior. So far, medication and therapy have been found to be the best course of treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is one form of therapy that is used. It aids the therapist in helping the patient to identify and stay away from circumstances that may act as triggers and lead to negative behavior. Several medications are also used to treat this disorder. These include: antiandrogens which reduce the sex drive, Provera and Lupron. Zoloft, Prozac, Luvox, Celexa and Paxil, given in high doses, have also been found to be beneficial in treating sexual disorders. Not only do they help relieve compulsivity, they also serve to help lower the sex drive and any side effects it may cause. This method is also known as chemical castration. Poland has become the first country to make chemical castration mandatory for men who rape children who are under fifteen years of age. In Canada, it is used a condition for parole for sex offenders( Cutts,J.,2020).
It has been found that pedophiles may benefit from treatment designed to raise their self- esteem and teach them social skills. Art therapy, also known as expressive therapy, has been tried on incarcerated pedophiles. In one study, short-term art therapy was used on a subject called "Fletch". Ten sessions that focused on raising "Fletch's self-image were used. Over the course of five weeks, he was encouraged to use art to explore his values and ideas. During the last half of the study, Fletch used an art journal as a way to express his feelings. The results of this study were very revealing. For instance, the way he drew stick figures changed over the course of the treatment. In the beginning, he began with the torso and ended with the head and face. By the end, though, "Fletch" used the exact opposite method to draw the same figures. He also demonstrated an increased sense of self and body image and had fewer physical complaints.
Pedophilia is a life-altering disorder that affects people from all walks of life. So far, there is no known cause or cure for it but it is the hope of both the medical community and the general public that someday a cure will be found. In the meantime, our best ideas are to continue research and work to raise public awareness. Perhaps, finding more answers about what causes this disorder will serve to remove the stigma of being a pedophile and encourage more people to seek treatment. Until that day arrives, there will continue to be those who suffer quietly in the shadows as well as those who get caught and become involved with the criminal justice system. Meanwhile, the main focus will be on protecting innocent children.
(1997). Pedohilia. In Merck Manual of Medical Information- Home Edition (pp. 456-457). New York, NY: Pocket Books.
Pedophilia Treatments. (2002-2020). Retrieved February 18, 2020, from Psychology Today:
Pessimism About Pedophilia. (2020). Harvard Mental Health Letter, 1-4.Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
A Profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes and Forensic Issues. (2020). Mayo Clinic Proceedings, pp. 1-4.
Ackerman, J. (1992). Art therapy intervention designed to increase self-esteem of an incarcerated pedophile. American Journal of Art Therapy, May 92, Vol. 30, Issue 4, 143,7.
Cutts, J. (2020). Pedophiles on Drugs. Maclean's, 123(24), 36. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
DiChristina, M. (2020). Abnormal Attraction. Scientific American Mind, 20(3), 76-81.Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The Johnny Gosch Foundation. (nd). Retrieved February 23, 2020, from JohnnyGosch.com:
What is Pedophilia and why are child pedophiles such an epidemic? (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2020, from RegisteredOffendersList.org: